The Hayabusa-2 spacecraft was launched by Japan’s space agency (Jaxa) in 2014.
Three-and-half years later it reached its destination – the asteroid known as 162173 Ryugu.
The 900m (2,950ft) wide space rock is thought to be left over from the early days of our Solar System and could provide clues about the origin and evolution of Earth.
The spacecraft has since deployed rovers to explore the asteroid and will also land on the surface of Ryugu itself to collect samples, before taking off again.
BBC Click’s Spencer Kelly meets the team behind the project to find out more.